Archive for 使役形

使役形: ~をして~しむ

Studying a new story the other day, I came across another form of the 使役形 I hadn’t studied in any other book, so I decided to bring it here.

I’ve mentioned it in passing in other posts, but that doesn’t really do justice to what is a fairly complex construction. First, the most basic form of 使役形 is A使BC, where A is the subject, B is the object, and C is the verb. It is read A、BをしてCせしむ. ~しむ is a classical Japanese 助動詞 to specify 使役形 must like ~させる in modern Japanese, and attaches to the 未然形. There is one more form of 使役形 in 古典 (~す・~さす), but 漢文 is only read with ~しむ.

Some examples:
1.天帝使我長百獣 天帝我をして百獣に長たらしむ, where ~たらしむ is ~たり(断定)+しむ. You can read 長 however you like, I suppose, though most books read (this particular example) as ちょう. You might feel the urge to get fancy in 漢文 sometimes, but it is often unnecessary. I’d go so far as to say, when in doubt, stick with the 音読 (it being Chinese and all). 因みに, this is from the 虎の威を借る狐 allegory, which I will do some day.
2.Very often, A is abbreviated, as in the following. 使天下無以古非今 天下をして古を以て今を非とすること無からしむ.
3. In addition to 使, there are at least 4 other 漢字 used to signify 使役 that are read ~をして: 令・教・遣・俾. With the exception of 俾, which appears to be uncommon, if not rare, the others seem somewhat common and there is usually a nuance of the original meaning of the character used.
諸例:イ)遂教方士慇懃覓 遂に方士をして慇懃(いんぎん)に覓(もと)めしむ。(教える)ロ)遣人随其往尋向所誌 人をしてその往くに随(したが)ひ向(さき)に誌(しる)せし所に尋ねしむ。(遣はす)ハ)令将軍与臣有郤 将軍をして臣と郤有らしむ。(令す)ニ)匪用其良、覆俾我悖 その良を用ゐるに匪(あら)ず、覆って我をして悖らしむ。*現代語訳 below.

In addition to the ~をして construction, there are 漢字 that have an inherent 使役 meaning, and as such the 文 takes the 使役形. One usually figures it out through context, but here are some below:
イ)命 A名BC A、Bに命じてCせしむ(命令する)
ロ)召 A召BC A、Bを召してCせしむ(召し寄せる)
ハ)説 A説BC A、Bに説きてCせしむ(説得する)
ニ)勧 A勧BC A、Bに勧めてCせしむ(勧める) 例:勧斉伐燕
ホ)遣 A遣BC A、Bに遣はしてCせしむ  This character can be read either ~をして or ~を遣はして depending on context)
ヘ)挙 A挙BC A、Bを挙げてCせしむ(挙用する)
ト)駆 A駆BC A、Bを駆りてCせしむ(追い立てる) 例:駆其所愛子弟以殉之 (その愛する所の子弟を駆りて以て之に殉ぜしむ)
チ)趣 A趣BC A、Bを趣(うなが)してCせしむ 例:趣火来上(火を趣して来(きた)り上さしめ

Just some examples. There are, of course, other examples where there is no indicator (例:坐之堂下、賜僕妾之食 これを堂下に坐せしめ、僕妾(ぼくしょう)の食を賜ふ), so, like everything in 漢文, there is no hard-set rule.





I will do another story today, one that is, in my opinion, fairly humorous and may give us an insight into the personalities of Confucian-period Chinese people. I’ve decided to do something different this time with readings, and that is to put them not in the 書き下し文 but in the explanations after, to improve readability.



晏子 君を諌む


There were many grammatical points in here, along with a confusing new usage of 而. Let’s take a look.

晏子 あんし: 名 is 嬰(えい), alive during the 春秋時代 of China (when Confucius was alive) from 斉.
其圉人 そのぎょじん: A 圉人 was a bureaucrat who took care of lords’ horses, so 其 refers to 景公 and not the horse.
怒り いかり
援戈 ほこをとりて
将自撃之 まさにみずからこれをうたんとす: Our first encounter with a 再読文字, that is, a character that is read twice. It is read ignoring 返り点 the first time (将二自撃一レ之), then come back to at the end. This particular character is read まさに~未然形+んとす and means 今にも~をしようとする.  As a side note, 未然形+ん is the classical Japanese 助動詞 「む」 which has several meanings, but here it is 推量(だろう).
此 これ: This refers to the 圉人.
不知其罪而死: He will die without knowing his crimes.
臣 しん: First-person pronoun =私
請: This character tells us the following is 願望形, and that there are two possible endings to the sentence: 未然形+む (意思・意向) (令:請以剣舞<請う剣を以て舞はん>)or 命令形 (令:願大王急渡<願わくは大王急ぎ渡れ>願わくは=請う). The difference between the two is the first means どうか私に~させて下さい and the second means どうか~して下さい.
数 せめ: 責める, Here this means to enumerate one’s crimes
令知其罪而 そのつみをしらせめて: 令=使, an indicator of 使役形. I will explain this more further down.
臣請為君数之、令知其罪而殺: Please let me tell him his crimes and then let me kill him.
諾 だく: OK
臨: Here, this means to walk in front of the 圉人 and face him. The character itself means a person of high status facing a person of lower status, or a person from a geographically high position facing a person in a lower position.
汝、而 なんぢ: Second-person pronoun =Thou, used only in reference to close friends of similar status and those of a lower status. The reason 而, a character that has no relation to the meaning of 汝 is because the 音 are similar. 汝(じょ)、而(じ). Other characters read なんじ include 若(じゃく)、爾(じ)、女(じょ). In addition, 乃 is also used, but this character is read だい or ない, and so is somewhat of an outcast. (Perhaps, since it is similar in form to 汝, 乃 could have been a mis-scribe that led to common usage.) It is more common as すなわち (I imagine). As with everything in 漢文, 漢字力 and reasoning abilities are very important in deciding, from context, what exactly the characters meaning is.
使吾君以馬之故殺圉人: 使, as explained above, is 使役形, and the noun directly following is followed by をして. “You have made my lord kill you because of a horse.”
四隣諸侯 しりんのしょこう: The various rulers of the bordering countries.
汝使吾君以馬故殺人、聞於四隣諸侯: You have made my lord let the bordering countries know about his killing of a human over a horse.
夫子 ふうし: A 夫子 is a teacher.
釈之 これをゆるせ: 釈 means 赦す、解く、放つ.
仁 じん: I’m not really sure how to translate 仁, except that is a key tenet of Confucianism, ie. benevolence. 仁者 is a common word, meaning a man of virtue. Here is an explanation from the 日本国語大辞典:「孔子は、天から人間に与えられた人間の本性の働きで単なる情念ではなく、勇と知とを兼ね備え、克己復礼、孝悌、敬、忠恕、愛などに表現され、また制度としての令の中にも具体化されるとした」
勿傷我仁: 禁止形.  “Do not harm my 仁!” Kind of a lame translation. すること勿れ=するな
也: Our first 置き字, that is, a character that is not read and merely imparts nuance to the sentence. Here, 断定. This is often found at the end of 禁止形.

景公有馬、其圉人殺之、公怒援戈、将自撃之、晏子曰、此不知其罪而死、臣請為君数之、令知其罪而殺之、公曰、諾、晏子挙戈而臨之曰、汝為吾君養馬而 殺之、而罪当死、汝使吾君以馬之故殺圉人、而罪又当死、汝使吾君以馬故殺人、聞於四隣諸侯、汝罪又当死、公曰、夫子釈之、夫子釈之、勿傷我仁也、

Well, what do you think? 晏子 lecturing the 圉人 as to why he’s going to die is, in fact, lecturing 景公 as to why he is wrong for having this man killed. Of course it is silly to kill someone over a horse, and 晏子, showing some wisdom, perhaps, in how to deal with rulers back then, temporarily placed the blame on the 圉人 to show why 景公 was wrong. Kind of amusing, huh?



I’m gonna try and explain some parables. Think of these as the Chinese Aesop’s Fables. But before that, I would like to introduce a 比較形 construction. There are numerous types of these in 漢文 (孰与 is similar), and this one, 不如 is a negative form and is read ~にしかず. A few examples:

(Lit. “Hearing about something one hundred times is not the same as seeing it once.” Similar to “a picture is worth a thousand words”)

妄与不如遺棄物於溝壑 *see below
(Lit. “Giving things away left and right is not the same as throwing it into a ditch (溝壑),” but in practice, “If you’re going to give away things left and right, you might as well throw them into a ditch.”)

With that in mind, let’s move on.





Phew, that’s a mouthful. This is a parable from the 説苑(ぜいえん) compiled by 劉向(りゅうきょう) some few dozen years BC. The 説 in 説苑 is pronounced ぜい, which is to express your opinions and beliefs to other people. せつ is found in words like 説明, to explain, and 解説, to commentate, while ぜい is found in 遊説, to campaign or stump. From the 5th century BC to around the 3rd century BC, during China’s 戦国時代, there were people known as 説客 who traveled around the various kingdoms hoping to be used by the lords. Anyway, on to the parable.

子思: A grandson of 孔子(Confucius). His 名 was 伋, and his 字(あざな) was 子思. The 字 was used by lower-ranked people as a form of respect, while the 名 was used by people of similar status or higher status, or in referring to oneself.
居於衛: 衛 was an ancient country, and 於 is similar to the “in” preposition in English. Roughly translated as “Lived in Ei.” There are numerous usages, うhowever.
縕袍無表: A 縕袍 is a type of kimono, thick and used to protect oneself from the cold. Here, the 表 has fallen off from wear (though admittedly, I can’t imagine what this would look like).
二旬而九食: One 旬(しゅん) is ten days, so nine meals in twenty days. While there is no indicator of this being a のみ clause, the context lends itself to this translation. I wonder if 九食にす is also an appropriate translation?
田子方: A person from 魏(ぎ), a country during the 戦国時代
使人遣狐白之裘: 使 is an indicator of 使役形 and the noun directly following takes ~をして, representing the object (in modern Japanese, ~に・を). 狐白之裘 is a fur coat made from the white fur on the underside of a fox.
因りて: Because
謂ひて: To inform someone.
謂之曰: 之 refers to 子思, but the following dialogue, including the 子方曰… part, is conveyed by the person 子方 sent to deliver the coat.
吾仮人遂忘之: 仮 is 貸す, 遂 does NOT mean “In the end.” It means そのまま. 之 does not mean the item he lent but rather the act of lending (I think).
吾与人也: The 也 in this construction is a particle that refers to a situation or condition. Modern Japanese equivalent might be こと・の.
何故不受: Questions in classical Japanese end in the 連体形, not the 終止形, so 受けず becomes 受けざる. Including や is optional. (Generally, や is only included if 乎 etc is at the end to avoid mixing the two up.)
溝壑: A ditch.
伋雖貧也: 雖 is といえども. The 也 here is the same as the 也 above, that is, a particle indicating condition or situation. In this construction, it is both used and not used (meaning optional), and as such does not have to be read. It may be read や or なり. Potential optional translations: 伋、貧と雖も, 伋、貧やと雖も? or 伋、貧と雖もや?
不忍: ~に堪えない
以身為溝壑: 以~為~ is a set construction read ~を以て~と為す. It means とする・と思う. Occasionally, 以為 appears with nothing between. This can be read 以て~と為す or おもへらく~と. This means だと思う (例:虎以為然。虎、以て然(しか)りと為す or 虎、おもへらく然りと。<虎、なるほどと思った>)
是以: There are two variations to this construction. 是以 and 以是. The first is read ここを以て and refers to the preceding opinion, idea, abstract object. The latter is read これを以て and refers to the preceding tangible object.
不敢当: Literally, “This does not apply to me.” お受けするわけにはゆかぬ


Thus ends the first parable, 子思立節. A poor man who cannot afford to eat but once every other day and dressed in tattered clothes, is offered a coat by a rich man who, in doing so, says that he often gives things to people and forgets about them. Really, giving things away is just like throwing them away. The poor man interprets this as the man saying he might as well throw them into a ditch and, unwilling to consider himself a ditch, rejects the coat.

Was this a smart move? Did pride get in the way of the man accepting charity? Or is this an admirable act on the part of the poor man? That, no matter how down and doubt a man gets, he still has his self-respect.

Would 子思 have accepted the coat if 子方 hadn’t spoken so much? I suspect he would have. Sometimes, good intentions are ruined with poor words.