Archive for 3月, 2009

晏子諌君

I will do another story today, one that is, in my opinion, fairly humorous and may give us an insight into the personalities of Confucian-period Chinese people. I’ve decided to do something different this time with readings, and that is to put them not in the 書き下し文 but in the explanations after, to improve readability.

晏子諌君

景公有馬、其圉人殺之、公怒援戈、将自撃之、晏子曰、此不知其罪而死、臣請為君数之、令知其罪而殺之、公曰、諾、晏子挙戈而臨之曰、汝為吾君養馬而殺之、而罪当死、汝使吾君以馬之故殺圉人、而罪又当死、汝使吾君以馬故殺人、聞於四隣諸侯、汝罪又当死、公曰、夫子釈之、夫子釈之、勿傷我仁也、

晏子 君を諌む

景公馬有り。その圉人これを殺す。公怒り戈を援りて、まさに自らこれを撃たんとす。晏子曰く、「これその罪知らずして死す。臣請ふ君の為にこれを数め、その罪を知らしめてこれを殺さん」と。公曰く、「諾」と。晏子戈を挙げてこれに臨んで曰く、「汝我が君の為に馬を養ひてこれを殺す、而の罪死に当たる。汝我が君をして馬を以ての故に圉人を殺さしむ、而の罪また死に当たる。汝我が君をして馬を以ての故に人を殺し、四隣の諸侯に聞えしむ、汝の罪また死に当たる」と。公曰く、「夫子これを釈せ、夫子これを釈せ。我が仁を傷つくること勿れ」と。

There were many grammatical points in here, along with a confusing new usage of 而. Let’s take a look.

晏子 あんし: 名 is 嬰(えい), alive during the 春秋時代 of China (when Confucius was alive) from 斉.
其圉人 そのぎょじん: A 圉人 was a bureaucrat who took care of lords’ horses, so 其 refers to 景公 and not the horse.
怒り いかり
援戈 ほこをとりて
将自撃之 まさにみずからこれをうたんとす: Our first encounter with a 再読文字, that is, a character that is read twice. It is read ignoring 返り点 the first time (将二自撃一レ之), then come back to at the end. This particular character is read まさに~未然形+んとす and means 今にも~をしようとする.  As a side note, 未然形+ん is the classical Japanese 助動詞 「む」 which has several meanings, but here it is 推量(だろう).
此 これ: This refers to the 圉人.
不知其罪而死: He will die without knowing his crimes.
臣 しん: First-person pronoun =私
請: This character tells us the following is 願望形, and that there are two possible endings to the sentence: 未然形+む (意思・意向) (令:請以剣舞<請う剣を以て舞はん>)or 命令形 (令:願大王急渡<願わくは大王急ぎ渡れ>願わくは=請う). The difference between the two is the first means どうか私に~させて下さい and the second means どうか~して下さい.
数 せめ: 責める, Here this means to enumerate one’s crimes
令知其罪而 そのつみをしらせめて: 令=使, an indicator of 使役形. I will explain this more further down.
臣請為君数之、令知其罪而殺: Please let me tell him his crimes and then let me kill him.
諾 だく: OK
臨: Here, this means to walk in front of the 圉人 and face him. The character itself means a person of high status facing a person of lower status, or a person from a geographically high position facing a person in a lower position.
汝、而 なんぢ: Second-person pronoun =Thou, used only in reference to close friends of similar status and those of a lower status. The reason 而, a character that has no relation to the meaning of 汝 is because the 音 are similar. 汝(じょ)、而(じ). Other characters read なんじ include 若(じゃく)、爾(じ)、女(じょ). In addition, 乃 is also used, but this character is read だい or ない, and so is somewhat of an outcast. (Perhaps, since it is similar in form to 汝, 乃 could have been a mis-scribe that led to common usage.) It is more common as すなわち (I imagine). As with everything in 漢文, 漢字力 and reasoning abilities are very important in deciding, from context, what exactly the characters meaning is.
使吾君以馬之故殺圉人: 使, as explained above, is 使役形, and the noun directly following is followed by をして. “You have made my lord kill you because of a horse.”
四隣諸侯 しりんのしょこう: The various rulers of the bordering countries.
汝使吾君以馬故殺人、聞於四隣諸侯: You have made my lord let the bordering countries know about his killing of a human over a horse.
夫子 ふうし: A 夫子 is a teacher.
釈之 これをゆるせ: 釈 means 赦す、解く、放つ.
仁 じん: I’m not really sure how to translate 仁, except that is a key tenet of Confucianism, ie. benevolence. 仁者 is a common word, meaning a man of virtue. Here is an explanation from the 日本国語大辞典:「孔子は、天から人間に与えられた人間の本性の働きで単なる情念ではなく、勇と知とを兼ね備え、克己復礼、孝悌、敬、忠恕、愛などに表現され、また制度としての令の中にも具体化されるとした」
勿傷我仁: 禁止形.  “Do not harm my 仁!” Kind of a lame translation. すること勿れ=するな
也: Our first 置き字, that is, a character that is not read and merely imparts nuance to the sentence. Here, 断定. This is often found at the end of 禁止形.

景公有馬、其圉人殺之、公怒援戈、将自撃之、晏子曰、此不知其罪而死、臣請為君数之、令知其罪而殺之、公曰、諾、晏子挙戈而臨之曰、汝為吾君養馬而 殺之、而罪当死、汝使吾君以馬之故殺圉人、而罪又当死、汝使吾君以馬故殺人、聞於四隣諸侯、汝罪又当死、公曰、夫子釈之、夫子釈之、勿傷我仁也、

Well, what do you think? 晏子 lecturing the 圉人 as to why he’s going to die is, in fact, lecturing 景公 as to why he is wrong for having this man killed. Of course it is silly to kill someone over a horse, and 晏子, showing some wisdom, perhaps, in how to deal with rulers back then, temporarily placed the blame on the 圉人 to show why 景公 was wrong. Kind of amusing, huh?

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People and Places

There are several 漢字 in 漢文 that are common in modern Japanese, but can have incredibly different functions on a grammatical level. In particular, 所 and 者, which I will attempt to tackle in this post.

First of all, you should know that they do not really mean “place” and “person” respectively. They are used in this way, yes, but they are slightly (but very importantly) different. That is, 所 is often used to represent the one acted upon, and 者 is used to represent the actor.

Hard to understand, yes, so here’s an example.
君者所事也、非事人者也
君なる者は事(つか)ふる所なり、人に事ふる者に非(あら)ざるなり。
Rulers are followed; they do not follow.

The juxtaposition is clear, if not a bit confusing at first.
君者: It seems entirely appropriate to translate this 者 as a person, but perhaps it would be better to think of it as a representation of the 本質 of 君. Similar to modern Japanese’s 君というのは.
所事也: Here 所 represents the destination of 事ふ, where the action of 事ふ is being channeled. See ex. below.
事人者: In contrast to the above, 者 comes last, not first, being modified by the 人に事ふ before it. It is the exact same as 君者 and means the exact same thing – that is, こと・の. Note, also, the contrast being made between 人 and 者. This is another clue that it does not exactly mean “person.”

You might be confused because it is not 事はる所なり, but 事ふ所なり. At first glance, the example seems to be saying “Rulers are followers; they are not followers.” But if you remember the distinct difference between 所 and 者, that is, the difference between the actee and the actor, it becomes clear. (It’s kind of understandable where the meanings of “place” and “person” came from, right?”

In addition, there are, in fact, 受身形 that explicitly use 所 to represent the object of the action. For example,
凡国有三制、有制人者、有為人之所制者、有不能制人、人亦不能制者、
凡(およ)そ国に三制有り。人を制する者有り、人の制する所とる者有り、人を制する能(あた)わず、人も亦(また)制する能わざる者有り。

Before I give an admittedly awkward translation, I would like to explain the point of my giving this example. Namely, the bolded part is (just) one type of (many) 受身形. It is a set phrase, A、為B所C and is read A、BのCするところとなる (AはBにCされる). If we look at the example as a whole,

“There are three (systems) in a country. (Those) who control people, (Those) who are controlled by other people, and (Those) who neither control others nor are controlled by others.”

Well, that’s the gist of it. Note the parentheses. First of all, it’s clear that the 三制 is related to the other 制, but forced between an even more forced translation and just using another meaning of the character, I chose the easy way out. I’m not so sure it’s wrong, though (and part of the difficulty of 漢文 is figuring out just which meaning is being used). Also, I put “those” in parentheses, and I’ll give you a hundred points if you guess why.

If you said “because ‘those’ infers a human being and this 者 does not necessarily to the actual people performing the action, but the entirety of the situation” or something similar, Do pass Go, Do collect $200.

I’m satisfied with these two example sentences. I think they did very well in illustrating the difference between 所 and 者.

*Note: In regards to the example sentence above regarding 為A所B, there are times when 所 is abbreviated and it just appears as 為AB. Eg, 卒為天下笑 = 卒(つい)に天下の笑ひと為る. This is a form older than the one using 所 (maybe even the people of the time got fed up with how ambiguous this language was), and if we were to “fix” it, it would be 卒為天下所笑 = 卒に天下の笑ふ所と為る。 (An interesting way to think of this is that it is similar to the 連体形 in classical Japanese, in that a particle is often found directly after the verb because of the abbr. of a noun (like の). Eg, これやこの行くも帰るも別れては、知るも知らぬも逢坂の関 in which the 人 after each noun is abbreviated.

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子思立節

I’m gonna try and explain some parables. Think of these as the Chinese Aesop’s Fables. But before that, I would like to introduce a 比較形 construction. There are numerous types of these in 漢文 (孰与 is similar), and this one, 不如 is a negative form and is read ~にしかず. A few examples:

百聞不如一見
百聞は一見に如(し)かず
(Lit. “Hearing about something one hundred times is not the same as seeing it once.” Similar to “a picture is worth a thousand words”)

妄与不如遺棄物於溝壑 *see below
妄(みだ)りに与ふるは物を溝壑(こうがく)に遺棄するに如(し)かず
(Lit. “Giving things away left and right is not the same as throwing it into a ditch (溝壑),” but in practice, “If you’re going to give away things left and right, you might as well throw them into a ditch.”)

With that in mind, let’s move on.

子思立節

子思居於衛、縕袍無表、二旬而九食、田子方聞之、使人遣狐白之裘、恐其不受、因謂之曰、吾仮人遂忘之、吾与人也如棄之、子思辞而不受、子方曰、我有子無、何故不受、子思曰、伋聞之、妄与不如遺棄物於溝壑、伋雖貧也、不忍以身為溝壑、是以不敢当也。

子思(しし)節(せつ)を立つ

子思衛(えい)にをる。縕袍(うんぽう・どてら)表無く、二旬(にじゅん)にして九(ここの)たび食らふのみ。田子方(でんしほう)これを聞き、人をして狐白(こはく)の裘(きゅう・かわごろも・けごろも)を遣(おく)らしむ。その受けざるを恐れ、因りて謂ひて曰く、「吾人に仮せば遂にこれを忘る。吾人に与ふる也(や)之を棄つるが如し」と。子思辞して受けず。子方曰く、「我有り子無し、何の故に受けざる」と。子思曰く、「伋(きゅう)これを聞く、妄りに与ふるは物を溝壑に遺棄するに如かず、と。伋貧なりと雖(いえど)も身を以て溝壑と為(な)すに忍びず。是(ここ)を以て敢へて当たらざるなり」と。

Phew, that’s a mouthful. This is a parable from the 説苑(ぜいえん) compiled by 劉向(りゅうきょう) some few dozen years BC. The 説 in 説苑 is pronounced ぜい, which is to express your opinions and beliefs to other people. せつ is found in words like 説明, to explain, and 解説, to commentate, while ぜい is found in 遊説, to campaign or stump. From the 5th century BC to around the 3rd century BC, during China’s 戦国時代, there were people known as 説客 who traveled around the various kingdoms hoping to be used by the lords. Anyway, on to the parable.

子思: A grandson of 孔子(Confucius). His 名 was 伋, and his 字(あざな) was 子思. The 字 was used by lower-ranked people as a form of respect, while the 名 was used by people of similar status or higher status, or in referring to oneself.
居於衛: 衛 was an ancient country, and 於 is similar to the “in” preposition in English. Roughly translated as “Lived in Ei.” There are numerous usages, うhowever.
縕袍無表: A 縕袍 is a type of kimono, thick and used to protect oneself from the cold. Here, the 表 has fallen off from wear (though admittedly, I can’t imagine what this would look like).
二旬而九食: One 旬(しゅん) is ten days, so nine meals in twenty days. While there is no indicator of this being a のみ clause, the context lends itself to this translation. I wonder if 九食にす is also an appropriate translation?
田子方: A person from 魏(ぎ), a country during the 戦国時代
使人遣狐白之裘: 使 is an indicator of 使役形 and the noun directly following takes ~をして, representing the object (in modern Japanese, ~に・を). 狐白之裘 is a fur coat made from the white fur on the underside of a fox.
因りて: Because
謂ひて: To inform someone.
謂之曰: 之 refers to 子思, but the following dialogue, including the 子方曰… part, is conveyed by the person 子方 sent to deliver the coat.
吾仮人遂忘之: 仮 is 貸す, 遂 does NOT mean “In the end.” It means そのまま. 之 does not mean the item he lent but rather the act of lending (I think).
吾与人也: The 也 in this construction is a particle that refers to a situation or condition. Modern Japanese equivalent might be こと・の.
何故不受: Questions in classical Japanese end in the 連体形, not the 終止形, so 受けず becomes 受けざる. Including や is optional. (Generally, や is only included if 乎 etc is at the end to avoid mixing the two up.)
溝壑: A ditch.
伋雖貧也: 雖 is といえども. The 也 here is the same as the 也 above, that is, a particle indicating condition or situation. In this construction, it is both used and not used (meaning optional), and as such does not have to be read. It may be read や or なり. Potential optional translations: 伋、貧と雖も, 伋、貧やと雖も? or 伋、貧と雖もや?
不忍: ~に堪えない
以身為溝壑: 以~為~ is a set construction read ~を以て~と為す. It means とする・と思う. Occasionally, 以為 appears with nothing between. This can be read 以て~と為す or おもへらく~と. This means だと思う (例:虎以為然。虎、以て然(しか)りと為す or 虎、おもへらく然りと。<虎、なるほどと思った>)
是以: There are two variations to this construction. 是以 and 以是. The first is read ここを以て and refers to the preceding opinion, idea, abstract object. The latter is read これを以て and refers to the preceding tangible object.
不敢当: Literally, “This does not apply to me.” お受けするわけにはゆかぬ

子思居於衛、縕袍無表、二旬而九食、田子方聞之、使人遣狐白之裘、恐其不受、因謂之曰、吾仮人遂忘之、吾与人也如棄之、子思辞而不受、子方曰、我有子無、何故不受、子思曰、伋聞之、妄与不如遺棄物於溝壑、伋雖貧也、不忍以身為溝壑、是以不敢当也。

Thus ends the first parable, 子思立節. A poor man who cannot afford to eat but once every other day and dressed in tattered clothes, is offered a coat by a rich man who, in doing so, says that he often gives things to people and forgets about them. Really, giving things away is just like throwing them away. The poor man interprets this as the man saying he might as well throw them into a ditch and, unwilling to consider himself a ditch, rejects the coat.

Was this a smart move? Did pride get in the way of the man accepting charity? Or is this an admirable act on the part of the poor man? That, no matter how down and doubt a man gets, he still has his self-respect.

Would 子思 have accepted the coat if 子方 hadn’t spoken so much? I suspect he would have. Sometimes, good intentions are ruined with poor words.

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「すなわち」のいろいろ: 漢字の使い分け

One of the first things you notice about 漢文 is the usage of すなわち. Unlike in modern Japanese, it has more meanings than just “in other words.” The meaning is dependent on the character used. There are at least six characters that are read すなわち. I’ll put examples up if I can find them.

1. 則ち
イ)~すれば・~ならば (Found with a verb/adj (用言) before, read as 已然形+ば 例:以五十歩笑百歩、則何如。<五十歩を以って百歩を笑はば、則ち何如(いかん)。>)
ロ)~においては
ハ)そこで

2. 即ち
イ)とりもなおさず・つまり (modern usage)
ロ)すぐに・ただちに
ハ)~すれば・ならば (則ち、イ)に同じ)
ニ)~においては (則ち、ロ)に同じ)
ヘ)そのときに (例: 今日不雨明日不雨、即有死蚌 <今日雨ふらず、明日雨ふらずんば、即ち死蚌(しぼう)有らん。>

3. 乃ち
イ)ところが・それなのに
ロ)なんと・やっとのことで
ハ)そこで (例: 不覚、衝大尹韓愈。乃具言。<覚えず大尹韓愈(たいいんかんゆ)に衝(あ)たる。乃ち具(つぶさ)に言う。>)

4. 便ち
イ)すぐに・そのまま (The same as 「遂に」かなぁ)
ロ)つまり (same as 即ち、イ) (例:匡廬便是逃名地<匡廬(きょうろ)は便ち是(これ)、名を逃るるの地。>)

5. 輒ち
イ)その度毎に

6. 迺ち
イ)そこで (例: 迺詔斉召蒯通。<迺ち斉に詔(みことのり)し、蒯通(かいとう)を召す。>)

As far as I can tell, the most common usage is ~ばすなわち if in the middle of a sentence/paragraph. If at the beginning, it’s likely そこで.

This is by no means a conclusive list.

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坐而待伐、孰与伐人之利

Well, I don’t know where to start from since I’m starting this blog in the middle of my studying instead of at the beginning, so I guess I’ll just start from where I’m at now.

坐而待伐、孰与伐人之利

坐(ざ)して伐(う)たるるを待つは、人を伐つの利なるに孰(いず)れぞ。

座った儘人に討たれるのを待つよりは、(先手を打ってその)人を討つほうがいい。

Well, literally, 孰与 makes it a question. “Compared to this, how is that?” But, we all know which is better, so it is, in practice, a euphemistic exhortation. Phrases like this really remind me of English more than Japanese, which is funny since it’s a 漢字圏 language (THE 漢字圏 language, really). But, for example, in “Which is better, sitting on your butt waiting to get hit or making the first strike?”, you see that (classical) Chinese may have a lot in common with modern English in more than just word order.

In classical Chinese, metaphors and allegories are commonplace (which is partially why it’s so hard to understand). Thus, while this example seems to be the pre-Christ equivalent of “kill or be killed,” it may have just been used to convince an ancient Chinese Romeo to go after his Juliet before someone else went after her.

Anyway, some questions about 坐而待伐、孰与伐人之利.

1. 坐而 is translated as 坐して. Can it be 坐りながらにして? I suspect yes.
2. 待伐 is 伐たるるを待つ. This is a common frustration in 漢文, but even with no indicators of passive voice (見、被、所、為、遇), it is in the passive voice. Why do you do this to me?
3. 伐人之利 is 人を伐つの利なる. I have issues with the 伐つ之. It’s common in 漢文 to stick a の on a verb in this kind of construction, and I can see why since it is a possessive clause. But, is it necessary to use it in the translation? 訳さなくてもいいじゃないのぅぅ

Notes:
1. 「孰与」 is read 「いずれぞ」, but 「いずれぞ」 only applies to 「孰」. 「与」 has no meaning and is just there for fun.
2. This 「而」 tells you that the verb before it is 連用形, that is it’s just there to break up two verb clauses.  Here, it is read 「にして」.

(BTW with 返り点, it looks like 坐而待レ伐、孰二-与伐レ人之利一 that. Completely unreadable, amirite? So, no 返り点 on this blog til I can figure out subscripts.)

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Introduction・自己紹介

I plan on making this more of a self-study resource than a blog. I fully expect no one to ever come here. But if there are some lucky souls interested in studying classical Chinese (and translating it into classical Japanese), or 漢文, then you’re more than welcome to study with me.

加油

(okay that was just modern Chinese)

Disclaimer: I am not a 漢文学者. The 書き下し文 are usually taken from the materials I’m studying and, provided there is no modern translation, the translations are my own (as such, so are the interpretations). The meaning I take from untranslated 漢文 could be completely wrong. In other words, I am not a reliable source.

日本の方で英語が読めないけど漢文がわかりたい!とお思いの方なら当ブログへようこそいらっしゃいませ。はじめまして、東京外国語大学のアレンと申します。ご覧のとおり、当ブログでは説明をなるべく英語一筋でやっています。便宜上、日本語で書くことがありますが。そして、なにより自分自身のための学習材でやっています。始めるとき英語でやるか日本語でやるか考えた末、英語にしました。それは、英語圏の人々の間に面白い、意味深い、そして何より今っぽいとでも言えようか、漢文を振興させたかったからです。なのに、殆どのご来客の日本からいらっしゃることを想定しています。記事の内容で興味がそそられたのに英語が下手で諦めた、ようなことを絶対にしないで欲しいです。勿体ないです。ですから、気楽にどんどんと質問したり話し合ったりして下さい。

但し、上にも述べたのですが、改めて日本語で申し上げて、まだ学習中で学者では決してない上に、言語の障壁や三次的な異文化を経ることになっているので私が得る意味や訳などが全く違うことがあります。なるべく内容を考えつくした上の投稿ですが、人間に過ちが付き物というので、その都度、ご容赦を。そしてご訂正を。(笑)

よろしくお願いします。

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