而 ・ 与

At first glance, very unsimilar are 而 and 与. But, their functions in a sentence (at least when 而 is not 汝 and 与 is not 与える) are very similar to each other.

In short, they connect bits and pieces together to form a coherent thought. The main thing to keep in mind is that 而 connects verbs and clauses together (much like して~) and 与 connects nouns together (と).

For example, the 而 in 学而時習之 connects 学 and, strictly speaking, 習. Whereas,

知与不知 (知ると知らざると) connects two nouns together. Wait, aren’t those two verbs? Well, not quite. I believe I’ve mentioned it before, but nouns are often removed as superfluous in both classical Chinese and classical Japanese (thus giving rise to such things like これやこの行くも帰るも別れては知るも知らぬも逢坂の関). In other words, 知っている人と知らない人と.

I shouldn’t have to say this, but there are, of course, exceptions. But, in this case, thankfully, they are rare and not worth mentioning. So, with that, I will end this uncharacteristically short.

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漢詩其の弐

In which I talk about my second 漢詩. This one is by 柳宗元, who ranks along with 白居易 as one of the most famous Chinese poets and was most adept at poems dealing with nature. While short, 江雪 is a beautiful poem, evoking feelings of serenity and loneliness. It is also a good poem to use to describe the depth of 漢詩.

江雪 柳宗元

独 孤 万 千
釣 舟 径 山
寒 蓑 人 鳥
江 笠 蹤 飛
雪 翁 滅 絶

千山鳥飛ぶこと絶え
万径人蹤滅す
孤舟蓑笠の翁
独り釣る寒江の雪

As we saw with the first poem, 白居易’s 香炉峰下、新卜山居、草堂初成、偶題東壁, some liberties are taken with the word order that would otherwise be more linear were it prose. Of course, this is a poem, so we wouldn’t have it any other way, now would we?

Some notes:
千山鳥飛絶万径人蹤滅 : 鳥や人の影の全く見えない、見渡す限りの雪景色
万径 ばんけい : 獣道などすべての道
人蹤 じんしょう : 足跡
蓑笠 さりゅう : みのかさ
翁 おう

The quiet calm of a snow-swept field untouched by man or beast, and the loneliness of a single man fishing, a black speck in a world of white. Indescribable feelings, summed up in twenty characters. Not bad, huh?

I did not explain the structure of 漢詩 poems last time, mainly due to length concerns, so I will do that here. There are two types of 漢詩, 古体詩 and 近体詩. Since this is a 近体詩, I will explain only that one here, and leave the 古体詩 for later.

There are six types of 近体詩, which sounds intimidating but this is really just a combination of two factors: the number of characters in each verse and the number of verses. In 近体詩, there are only two possibilities as to the number of characters, 五言(五言) and 七言(七言). As for verses, there are three possibilities, 絶句 (four), 律詩 (eight), and 排律 (ten plus). Furthermore, being that poems were originally meant to be sung, rhyming is usually found. As a general rule, the even-numbered verses end in rhyming characters (音読) for 五言 and the first verse + even-numbered verses for 七言. At risk of putting anyone to sleep, just one last thing: the composition of 漢詩 usually takes the 起承転結 form.

1.ある内容を述べこす
2.起句を(う)けて展開する
3.内容を一させる
4.全体をまとめて

Applying the above, let’s take another look at 江雪. Firstly and most obviously, we can tell that this is a 五言絶句 because there are five characters per verse + four verses. As for the rhyme, it’s 五言, so we need only look at the second and fourth verses: 滅+雪, right? If we look closely, we see we get a freebie with 絶 at the beginning.

You may have also noticed the structural significance of the poem. For example, 滅絶 and 独孤 turned around are 絶滅 and 孤独. Adds a whole new dimension, huh?

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学而時習之

My posting has been sporadic lately. It’s that I’ve started school again, so my free time is now much more limited.

So I figured in the spirit of school starting back up again, I would post the first part of 孔子’s 論語. 論語 is a compilation of 孔子’s exchanges with his peers and followers. It is a call to arms to live a certain way of life, which, coincidentally, is how 孔子 lived his life.

子曰、学而時習之、不亦説乎、有朋自遠方来、不亦楽乎、人不知而不慍、不亦君子乎、

子曰く、「学びて時にこれを習う、また説(よろこば)しからずや。朋(とも)有り、遠方より来(きた)る、また楽しからずや。人知らずして慍(いきどほ)らず、また君子ならずや」と。

子 し: Up until now, we have seen 子 used as a second-person pronoun, 「あなた」. However, 子 is also a respectful title for a man, like 孔子, whose real name was 丘(きゅう) and 字(あざな) was 仲尼(ちゅうじ).
学而時習之: While this seems to be saying the same thing twice in a row, 学 means to learn something new, 習 means to review something you’ve already learned. So, 新しいことを学んでたまにこれを復習すること.
説: Many times in 漢文, a character is used that means something entirely different from what the translation says it does. Earlier, I covered 汝 and its variants. Likewise, the 音 of 説 is similar to 悦(えつ), the meaning here.
不亦: This is a construction that tells us it is both 反語形 and 詠嘆形. In other words, 不亦説乎 means 「なんとうれしいことではないか」
人不知而不慍: 自分の学問は世間に認められなくても怒らない//恨まない。 不慍 can also be read うらみず.
君子: There are two meanings to 君子, though it usually is used in one sense, and that is “a great man of learning and virtue.” It also means a king, 君主. According to 孔子, a 君主 must be a 君子, though a 君子 may not ever become a 君主.

One more time, 子曰、学而時習之、不亦説乎、有朋自遠方来、不亦楽乎、人不知而不慍、不亦君子乎、

The joy of learning something new and, through review, understanding it. The fun of gathering with friends to learn together. And, though your work might not be recognized by the world at large, not holding a grudge, is that which makes a man great.

孔子, himself, though he had many followers and was a great philosopher and educator, was not accepted by the kings he philosophized to. Despite this, he did not get angry, because learning is not for fame and profit, but for the enrichment of one’s character.

The title of this blog is, in fact, taken from this part, because it’s true. Even with translations and the 書き下し文 all written out for me,  understanding 漢文 is hard. But, through review and careful consideration, it actually does begin to make sense. And that’s a good feeling. Likewise, studying with friends is fun and, more importantly, deepens relationships. 孔子’s words are true and timeless.

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使役形: ~をして~しむ

Studying a new story the other day, I came across another form of the 使役形 I hadn’t studied in any other book, so I decided to bring it here.

I’ve mentioned it in passing in other posts, but that doesn’t really do justice to what is a fairly complex construction. First, the most basic form of 使役形 is A使BC, where A is the subject, B is the object, and C is the verb. It is read A、BをしてCせしむ. ~しむ is a classical Japanese 助動詞 to specify 使役形 must like ~させる in modern Japanese, and attaches to the 未然形. There is one more form of 使役形 in 古典 (~す・~さす), but 漢文 is only read with ~しむ.

Some examples:
1.天帝使我長百獣 天帝我をして百獣に長たらしむ, where ~たらしむ is ~たり(断定)+しむ. You can read 長 however you like, I suppose, though most books read (this particular example) as ちょう. You might feel the urge to get fancy in 漢文 sometimes, but it is often unnecessary. I’d go so far as to say, when in doubt, stick with the 音読 (it being Chinese and all). 因みに, this is from the 虎の威を借る狐 allegory, which I will do some day.
2.Very often, A is abbreviated, as in the following. 使天下無以古非今 天下をして古を以て今を非とすること無からしむ.
3. In addition to 使, there are at least 4 other 漢字 used to signify 使役 that are read ~をして: 令・教・遣・俾. With the exception of 俾, which appears to be uncommon, if not rare, the others seem somewhat common and there is usually a nuance of the original meaning of the character used.
諸例:イ)遂教方士慇懃覓 遂に方士をして慇懃(いんぎん)に覓(もと)めしむ。(教える)ロ)遣人随其往尋向所誌 人をしてその往くに随(したが)ひ向(さき)に誌(しる)せし所に尋ねしむ。(遣はす)ハ)令将軍与臣有郤 将軍をして臣と郤有らしむ。(令す)ニ)匪用其良、覆俾我悖 その良を用ゐるに匪(あら)ず、覆って我をして悖らしむ。*現代語訳 below.

In addition to the ~をして construction, there are 漢字 that have an inherent 使役 meaning, and as such the 文 takes the 使役形. One usually figures it out through context, but here are some below:
イ)命 A名BC A、Bに命じてCせしむ(命令する)
ロ)召 A召BC A、Bを召してCせしむ(召し寄せる)
ハ)説 A説BC A、Bに説きてCせしむ(説得する)
ニ)勧 A勧BC A、Bに勧めてCせしむ(勧める) 例:勧斉伐燕
ホ)遣 A遣BC A、Bに遣はしてCせしむ  This character can be read either ~をして or ~を遣はして depending on context)
ヘ)挙 A挙BC A、Bを挙げてCせしむ(挙用する)
ト)駆 A駆BC A、Bを駆りてCせしむ(追い立てる) 例:駆其所愛子弟以殉之 (その愛する所の子弟を駆りて以て之に殉ぜしむ)
チ)趣 A趣BC A、Bを趣(うなが)してCせしむ 例:趣火来上(火を趣して来(きた)り上さしめ

Just some examples. There are, of course, other examples where there is no indicator (例:坐之堂下、賜僕妾之食 これを堂下に坐せしめ、僕妾(ぼくしょう)の食を賜ふ), so, like everything in 漢文, there is no hard-set rule.

*イ)それで道士に念入りに捜索させた、ロ)部下に、男のあとについて行かせ、その時にしるしをつけた場所を訪ねさせた、ハ)将軍と私の間を割こうとした、ニ)(欲のために)よい人を役に立てることができず、却って自分を過ちに陥らせてしまう

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漢詩其の壱

I thought, in a change of pace, I would do my first poem today. In contrast to 漢文, they are called 漢詩, and since it’s my first, I might as well do one of the most famous poems by one of the most famous poets.

香炉峰下、新卜山居、草堂初成、偶題東壁 by 白居易 (Note it is read vertically)

故 心 司 匡 香 遺 小 日
郷 泰 馬 廬 炉 愛 閣 高
何 身 仍 便 峰 寺 重 睡
独 寧 為 是 雪 鐘 衾 足
在 是 送 逃 撥 欹 不 猶
長 帰 老 名 簾 枕 怕 慵
安 処 官 地 看 聴 寒 起

香炉峰か、新たに山居を卜し、草堂初めて成り、偶東壁に題す
日高く眠り足りて猶起くるに慵し
小閣に衾を重ねて寒を怕れず
遺愛寺の鐘は枕を欹てて聴き
香炉峰の雪は簾を撥げて看る
匡廬は便ち是名を逃るるの地
司馬は仍老いを送るの官たり
心泰く身寧きは是帰する処
故郷何ぞ独り長安に在るのみならんや

香炉峰: The northern peak of Mount Lushan (廬山), which appears often in 漢詩. By the way, a 香炉 is an incense burner.
卜 ぼくシ: Here, to find land suitable to live on.
草堂: A grass-thatch home. 庵(いおり)
偶 たまたま: Sometimes written 隅々
題東壁: It was common practice for poets to write poems on the walls of their homes (or their friends’ homes).
慵 ものうシ: 気だるい
小閣: A small two-story home. A 閣 is a building of two or more stories.
衾 ふすま: 掛け布団
不怕寒 かんヲおそレず
遺愛寺: A temple to the north of 香炉峰.
欹枕 まくらヲそばだテテ: Prop up the pillow.
香炉峰雪撥簾看 こうろほうノゆきハすだれヲかかゲテみル: This is a famous line, made so by its appearance in 枕草子. (雪のいと高う降りたるを、例ならず御格子まゐりて、炭櫃に火おこして、物語などして集まり侍ふに、「少納言よ、香炉峰の雪いかならむ。」と仰せらるれば、御格子上げさせて、御簾を高く上げたれば、笑はせ給ふ。) It shows us how big 漢詩 and 漢文 were in Heian Japan.
匡廬 きょうろ: A different name for 廬山.
便是 すなわチこレ: すなわち~である. 是れ means である here.
逃名地 なヲのがルルノち: A place fit for escaping secular pursuits of fame and fortune.
司馬 しば:When 白居易 wrote this poem, he had just been demoted to a 司馬, a sinecure position, in 815.
仍為 なホ たリ(二~一): つまり~である
心泰身寧 こころやすクみやすキハ: Why are these read やすし? Don’t forget about 安泰 and 安寧.
故郷何独在長安 こきょうなんゾひとリちょうあんニあルノミナランヤ: This is known as 累加形. 反語形の「何ぞ~んや」 and 限定形の「独り~のみ」 combine to mean どうしてただ~だけであろうか (いや、それだけではない). “Why should 長安 be my only hometown?”

It’s a nice poem, huh? We’ve all had these moments, where we wake up and are perfectly content with life, not worrying about the day ahead of us. Funny, these days usually seem to be in the winter when we are bundled up in our covers.

白居易 (はくきょい), 字:楽天, is perhaps the most famous of the 漢詩 poets. He started writing poems around five or six years old and began to serve the court when he was 29. At 44, he exceeded his power and made a direct appeal to the emperor and, as a result, was demoted to 司馬 (which is what this poem is about). In this poem, particularly in the verse, 匡廬便是逃名地, we can clearly see 白居易’s life view. He also wrote many poems criticizing the government satirically.

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晏子諌君

I will do another story today, one that is, in my opinion, fairly humorous and may give us an insight into the personalities of Confucian-period Chinese people. I’ve decided to do something different this time with readings, and that is to put them not in the 書き下し文 but in the explanations after, to improve readability.

晏子諌君

景公有馬、其圉人殺之、公怒援戈、将自撃之、晏子曰、此不知其罪而死、臣請為君数之、令知其罪而殺之、公曰、諾、晏子挙戈而臨之曰、汝為吾君養馬而殺之、而罪当死、汝使吾君以馬之故殺圉人、而罪又当死、汝使吾君以馬故殺人、聞於四隣諸侯、汝罪又当死、公曰、夫子釈之、夫子釈之、勿傷我仁也、

晏子 君を諌む

景公馬有り。その圉人これを殺す。公怒り戈を援りて、まさに自らこれを撃たんとす。晏子曰く、「これその罪知らずして死す。臣請ふ君の為にこれを数め、その罪を知らしめてこれを殺さん」と。公曰く、「諾」と。晏子戈を挙げてこれに臨んで曰く、「汝我が君の為に馬を養ひてこれを殺す、而の罪死に当たる。汝我が君をして馬を以ての故に圉人を殺さしむ、而の罪また死に当たる。汝我が君をして馬を以ての故に人を殺し、四隣の諸侯に聞えしむ、汝の罪また死に当たる」と。公曰く、「夫子これを釈せ、夫子これを釈せ。我が仁を傷つくること勿れ」と。

There were many grammatical points in here, along with a confusing new usage of 而. Let’s take a look.

晏子 あんし: 名 is 嬰(えい), alive during the 春秋時代 of China (when Confucius was alive) from 斉.
其圉人 そのぎょじん: A 圉人 was a bureaucrat who took care of lords’ horses, so 其 refers to 景公 and not the horse.
怒り いかり
援戈 ほこをとりて
将自撃之 まさにみずからこれをうたんとす: Our first encounter with a 再読文字, that is, a character that is read twice. It is read ignoring 返り点 the first time (将二自撃一レ之), then come back to at the end. This particular character is read まさに~未然形+んとす and means 今にも~をしようとする.  As a side note, 未然形+ん is the classical Japanese 助動詞 「む」 which has several meanings, but here it is 推量(だろう).
此 これ: This refers to the 圉人.
不知其罪而死: He will die without knowing his crimes.
臣 しん: First-person pronoun =私
請: This character tells us the following is 願望形, and that there are two possible endings to the sentence: 未然形+む (意思・意向) (令:請以剣舞<請う剣を以て舞はん>)or 命令形 (令:願大王急渡<願わくは大王急ぎ渡れ>願わくは=請う). The difference between the two is the first means どうか私に~させて下さい and the second means どうか~して下さい.
数 せめ: 責める, Here this means to enumerate one’s crimes
令知其罪而 そのつみをしらせめて: 令=使, an indicator of 使役形. I will explain this more further down.
臣請為君数之、令知其罪而殺: Please let me tell him his crimes and then let me kill him.
諾 だく: OK
臨: Here, this means to walk in front of the 圉人 and face him. The character itself means a person of high status facing a person of lower status, or a person from a geographically high position facing a person in a lower position.
汝、而 なんぢ: Second-person pronoun =Thou, used only in reference to close friends of similar status and those of a lower status. The reason 而, a character that has no relation to the meaning of 汝 is because the 音 are similar. 汝(じょ)、而(じ). Other characters read なんじ include 若(じゃく)、爾(じ)、女(じょ). In addition, 乃 is also used, but this character is read だい or ない, and so is somewhat of an outcast. (Perhaps, since it is similar in form to 汝, 乃 could have been a mis-scribe that led to common usage.) It is more common as すなわち (I imagine). As with everything in 漢文, 漢字力 and reasoning abilities are very important in deciding, from context, what exactly the characters meaning is.
使吾君以馬之故殺圉人: 使, as explained above, is 使役形, and the noun directly following is followed by をして. “You have made my lord kill you because of a horse.”
四隣諸侯 しりんのしょこう: The various rulers of the bordering countries.
汝使吾君以馬故殺人、聞於四隣諸侯: You have made my lord let the bordering countries know about his killing of a human over a horse.
夫子 ふうし: A 夫子 is a teacher.
釈之 これをゆるせ: 釈 means 赦す、解く、放つ.
仁 じん: I’m not really sure how to translate 仁, except that is a key tenet of Confucianism, ie. benevolence. 仁者 is a common word, meaning a man of virtue. Here is an explanation from the 日本国語大辞典:「孔子は、天から人間に与えられた人間の本性の働きで単なる情念ではなく、勇と知とを兼ね備え、克己復礼、孝悌、敬、忠恕、愛などに表現され、また制度としての令の中にも具体化されるとした」
勿傷我仁: 禁止形.  “Do not harm my 仁!” Kind of a lame translation. すること勿れ=するな
也: Our first 置き字, that is, a character that is not read and merely imparts nuance to the sentence. Here, 断定. This is often found at the end of 禁止形.

景公有馬、其圉人殺之、公怒援戈、将自撃之、晏子曰、此不知其罪而死、臣請為君数之、令知其罪而殺之、公曰、諾、晏子挙戈而臨之曰、汝為吾君養馬而 殺之、而罪当死、汝使吾君以馬之故殺圉人、而罪又当死、汝使吾君以馬故殺人、聞於四隣諸侯、汝罪又当死、公曰、夫子釈之、夫子釈之、勿傷我仁也、

Well, what do you think? 晏子 lecturing the 圉人 as to why he’s going to die is, in fact, lecturing 景公 as to why he is wrong for having this man killed. Of course it is silly to kill someone over a horse, and 晏子, showing some wisdom, perhaps, in how to deal with rulers back then, temporarily placed the blame on the 圉人 to show why 景公 was wrong. Kind of amusing, huh?

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People and Places

There are several 漢字 in 漢文 that are common in modern Japanese, but can have incredibly different functions on a grammatical level. In particular, 所 and 者, which I will attempt to tackle in this post.

First of all, you should know that they do not really mean “place” and “person” respectively. They are used in this way, yes, but they are slightly (but very importantly) different. That is, 所 is often used to represent the one acted upon, and 者 is used to represent the actor.

Hard to understand, yes, so here’s an example.
君者所事也、非事人者也
君なる者は事(つか)ふる所なり、人に事ふる者に非(あら)ざるなり。
Rulers are followed; they do not follow.

The juxtaposition is clear, if not a bit confusing at first.
君者: It seems entirely appropriate to translate this 者 as a person, but perhaps it would be better to think of it as a representation of the 本質 of 君. Similar to modern Japanese’s 君というのは.
所事也: Here 所 represents the destination of 事ふ, where the action of 事ふ is being channeled. See ex. below.
事人者: In contrast to the above, 者 comes last, not first, being modified by the 人に事ふ before it. It is the exact same as 君者 and means the exact same thing – that is, こと・の. Note, also, the contrast being made between 人 and 者. This is another clue that it does not exactly mean “person.”

You might be confused because it is not 事はる所なり, but 事ふ所なり. At first glance, the example seems to be saying “Rulers are followers; they are not followers.” But if you remember the distinct difference between 所 and 者, that is, the difference between the actee and the actor, it becomes clear. (It’s kind of understandable where the meanings of “place” and “person” came from, right?”

In addition, there are, in fact, 受身形 that explicitly use 所 to represent the object of the action. For example,
凡国有三制、有制人者、有為人之所制者、有不能制人、人亦不能制者、
凡(およ)そ国に三制有り。人を制する者有り、人の制する所とる者有り、人を制する能(あた)わず、人も亦(また)制する能わざる者有り。

Before I give an admittedly awkward translation, I would like to explain the point of my giving this example. Namely, the bolded part is (just) one type of (many) 受身形. It is a set phrase, A、為B所C and is read A、BのCするところとなる (AはBにCされる). If we look at the example as a whole,

“There are three (systems) in a country. (Those) who control people, (Those) who are controlled by other people, and (Those) who neither control others nor are controlled by others.”

Well, that’s the gist of it. Note the parentheses. First of all, it’s clear that the 三制 is related to the other 制, but forced between an even more forced translation and just using another meaning of the character, I chose the easy way out. I’m not so sure it’s wrong, though (and part of the difficulty of 漢文 is figuring out just which meaning is being used). Also, I put “those” in parentheses, and I’ll give you a hundred points if you guess why.

If you said “because ‘those’ infers a human being and this 者 does not necessarily to the actual people performing the action, but the entirety of the situation” or something similar, Do pass Go, Do collect $200.

I’m satisfied with these two example sentences. I think they did very well in illustrating the difference between 所 and 者.

*Note: In regards to the example sentence above regarding 為A所B, there are times when 所 is abbreviated and it just appears as 為AB. Eg, 卒為天下笑 = 卒(つい)に天下の笑ひと為る. This is a form older than the one using 所 (maybe even the people of the time got fed up with how ambiguous this language was), and if we were to “fix” it, it would be 卒為天下所笑 = 卒に天下の笑ふ所と為る。 (An interesting way to think of this is that it is similar to the 連体形 in classical Japanese, in that a particle is often found directly after the verb because of the abbr. of a noun (like の). Eg, これやこの行くも帰るも別れては、知るも知らぬも逢坂の関 in which the 人 after each noun is abbreviated.

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